The Types Of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life

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The Types of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life.   Introduction: In this article I will be briefly running through the various forms of haemoglobin present in a human; from an embryo to an adult. Firstly let’s recap the role and structure of haemoglobin. Role: The role of haemoglobin is rather similar to a delivery truck driver. This […]

RSPG – Car Crash Physics

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Working with Police Scotland, Physics students from Lockerbie Academy took part in a simulated crash investigation, based on a real crash that occurred in the local area. We used our knowledge of kinematics and problem solving skills to determine the cause of the collision. To do this we took measurements of displacement and deceleration and calculated the initial velocity of the car. The investigation found that the driver was at least partly to blame for driving too fast, therefore emphasising the importance of staying within the speed limit.

RSPG – Experimenting with Low Temperature Plasma

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This paper describes a low temperature plasma physics and visible spectroscopy experiment set-up and run by A level physics students. Results are presented from the measurement of the breakdown voltage for an argon plasma, successfully measured for a wide range of pressures. The minimum breakdown voltage from these results has been used to find an experimental value of ionisation energy for argon. In addition, the results from a visible spectroscopy system are also presented, using a fibre optic array coupled to a monochromator and microchannel. The first set of results from this study is shown as a plot of relative intensity as a function of wavelength.

Burden of HPV virus, Carcinogenesis and Prevention

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Human papillomavirus related cancers is a modern challenge, affecting mainly the younger generation. High-risk HPV causes 99% of cervical cancer and many other cancers of vagina, vulva, penis, anus and oral cavity. Most commonly, they cause precancerous changes in the cells of cervix which can be detected on smear test and effectively treated. Cancer of the cervix is therefore preventable. The burden and cost of HPV-associated disease and cancer is an important public health problem. Reducing the burden of HPV-associated cancer and disease through vaccination requires an integrated approach that includes clinical medicine, public health, and public policy at a global level. With the introduction of HPV vaccination against cervical cancer, the war on HPV has started but there is still a long way to go, especially with other cancers which are on the rise. There are clinical trials looking at effectiveness of HPV vaccines against other cancers and also on therapeutic vaccines to be used in people with HPV positive conditions. There is however a strong need to educate the younger generation about healthy and responsible sexual practices and increase awareness of HPV related diseases and cancers, in men as well as women.

On Schrodinger's Cat

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Sir Isaac Newton and his colleagues enjoyed studying and expanding the supposedly unequivocal laws of physics, such as Newton’s three laws of motion. During the twentieth century, theories such as Einstein’s relativity and those in quantum mechanics turned Newton’s world upside down. Today, a lot more is known about quantum mechanics. However, there is a still an unknown world between Newton’s and Feynman’s. One example of this gap is Schrodinger’s infamous cat.    

The Use of MMPs in Cancer Research

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that are highly expressed in tumours and are thought to have an important role in the advancement of cancer. Of particular interest is their contribution to metastasis – the spread of cancer around the body. As a result, they are currently being researched with the endeavour to develop new anticancer agents, with inhibitors of MMPs considered to be a viable option for future use in chemotherapy. Furthermore, these enzymes could be used to improve the way in which the body metabolises anti-cancer drugs, a method in which the drugs are only activated in the presence of MMPs in the tumour, and so reducing the potential for harmful side effects.

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

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Although diabetes mellitus, or, more commonly, just ‘diabetes’, is a condition (or, technically, a group of conditions) affecting over 382 million people worldwide, it is a condition which many people don’t know much about. In this article, I will explore type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well as a potential stem cell treatment for it. […]

RSPG – Algae! The answer to our food, pharmaceutical and energy needs?

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Our world is constantly searching for new energy sources and new mass food supplies due to the constant high demand and so a decrease in their supplies and the answer could be…algae! Algae have the potential to help solve some of these problems. In order to achieve this, however they must be produced at an accelerated rate, and we’re hoping to find out how. We will do this by finding the optimum growth conditions required by the algae and understanding some of their vital growth requirements. This includes the need for a symbiotic relationship with bacteria which may supply Vitamin B12 to the algae. Our experiments will measure the algal growth in different conditions so we can find if algae needs symbiotic conditions to grow fastest.