The Science behind Tsunamis

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A tsunami is a series of long, high sea waves caused by a disturbance in the water. This disturbance can come about in many ways such as an earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, or meteorite. The most common causes are volcanic or earthquake activity, and the disturbance itself causes abrupt movement of the water column. Tsunamis […]

Mitochondrial Donation now deemed 'safe'

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Why does this procedure exist?  Mitochondria provide energy to nearly every cell in the body. Mitochondria is transferred from mother to the baby, but if there is a problem with the mitochondria inherited to the baby, then this can result in severe mitochondrial diseases. One in every 6,500 babies born have severe mitochondrial disease which […]

Peanut Allergy Therapy

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According to a new study published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The LEAP-On study followed on from the LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy) found that an early introduction of peanuts to the diets of infants, who were at high risk of developing food allergy within the first 11 months of their lives, […]

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)

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Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) This new revolutionary genome editing tool will enable the elimination of many genetic diseases. It could also be used to modify crops, screen for cancer genes, eradicate virus’ and for genome engineering. This has sparked debate on whether ethically, this could lead to a slippery slope on what […]

PCSK9 Inhibitors – a solution for familial hypercholesterolaemia and ischaemic heart disease?

Posted on Leave a commentPosted in Biology, Health, Medicine

PCSK9 stands for Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 and it was first discovered in 2003[1] by Dr. Seidah et al. and it is a 692-amino acid glycoprotein.[2] PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the circulation[3] and it controls the “number of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) on the cell surface”[4] and therefore ultimately the […]

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

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What is Hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect which occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 babies. The term ‘hypoplastic’ refers to the underdevelopment of a tissue or an organ. Therefore HLHS involves the underdevelopment, or sometimes absence, of left-sided heart structures. For example, the left ventricle, […]

Tetralogy of Fallot

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Tetralogy of Fallot What is Tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect (one which is present at birth.) In fact, it is one of the most common congenital heart defects. It affects approximately 5 in 10,000 live births. Fallot was the name of the doctor who discovered this condition and the […]

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage – T.A.P.V.D   What is T.A.P.V.D? T.A.P.V.D stands for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage. It is an incredibly rare congenital heart defect (approximately 1 in 20,000 babies are born with it.) T.A.P.V.D is where the pulmonary veins, which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs and back to the heart, don’t […]

Remember that time?

Posted on Leave a commentPosted in Biology, Neuroscience

Since everyone in Years 11 and above will be, or at least should be, studying for exams around this time of year, it might be fun to think about the actual process of learning/memory itself. Before we start though,  it’s worth mentioning that with a topic like this it is far too easy to start considering […]

The Types Of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life

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The Types of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life.   Introduction: In this article I will be briefly running through the various forms of haemoglobin present in a human; from an embryo to an adult. Firstly let’s recap the role and structure of haemoglobin. Role: The role of haemoglobin is rather similar to a delivery truck driver. This […]